Health » Overview

Salzburg Global Seminar has long been a leading forum for the exchange of ideas on issues in health and health care affecting countries throughout the world. At these meetings agendas have been re-set affecting policy and practice in crucial areas, such as patient safety and the engagement of patients in medical decision making. In 2010, Salzburg Global Seminar launched a multi-year series of seminars to crystallize new approaches to global health and health care in the face of emerging challenges affecting us now and set to continue on through the coming generation.


Interviews and coverage from our Health programs

Health care professionals return to the nation of PeoplePower
Health care professionals return to the nation of PeoplePower
Oscar Tollast 
Health professionals in Salzburg have been implored to create an "avalanche" of ideas linked to transparency and the future of medical records.
Clinicians, patients, health providers, and commentators are among those have gathered at Schloss Leopoldskron for the Salzburg Global Seminar session Toward a Shared Culture of Health: Enriching and Charting the Patient-Clinician.
The session, supported by OpenNotes, was kick-started on Friday afternoon with introductory speeches from the session's co-chairs Dr. Tom Delbanco and Professor Tobias Esch.
Dr. Delbanco, Koplow-Tullis Professor of General Medicine and Primary Care at Harvard Medical School, and co-founder of OpenNotes began by dedicating the session to Salzburg Global’s “fourth founder” Herb Gleason. Mr. Gleason was a major driving force behind a number of Salzburg Global's health care programs before he passed away in 2013.
Dr. Delbanco, a multiple-time Salzburg Global Fellow, then described what he hoped to achieve from the session. Likening it to an “avalanche,” he urged participants to come up with ideas for change to implement quickly.
His co-chair, Professor Esch, said he was keen during the session to focus on the patient and the relationships they have with the people who treat them. Having been involved in the topic for much of his life, Professor Esch said the session now provided a chance to sit down at the table and talk.
During the session, and among other topics, participants will consider what difference full transparency may make for patients and clinicians, with insights from the neuroscience of motivation and self-care, and patient-controlled health information.
The session aims to build on the work achieved at a Salzburg Global session held in 1998 called Through the Patient’s Eyes: Collaboration between Patients and Health Care Professionals
During this session, teams of health care professionals, patient advocates, and artists laid out the foundations for the country of “PeoplePower,” a country with a health system built “through the patients’ eyes.” In this scenario, patients and clinicians would both be encouraged to contribute actively to the patient record, demonstrating shared decision-making and governance. The session helped coin the patient empowerment phrase "Nothing about me without me."
Following the introductory remarks, Dr. Delbanco - chair of both that influential 1998 session and this 2017 follow-on - sat down with Salzburg Global Program Director John Lotherington to discuss PeoplePower’s history. He described people power as one of the least utilized resources, something which should be tapped into far more by health professionals.
Dr. Delbanco described the number of thoughts which came out of the 1998 session as “scary.” He said some of the electronic ideas suggested at the time were now coming “too fast.”
In addition, he claimed we still hadn’t reached a point where generic patients had a voice in the activities of health care institutions. Dr. Delbanco suggested shared decision-making, and patient power was a concept more talked about than something put into action.
Following this discussion, patients broke off into groups to discuss what they felt patients would want in a land called PeoplePower. One table of Fellows highlighted a potential issue surrounding the assumption of having access as a patient. A participant argued a doctor should be inclined to ask their patient, “Have you accessed your notes? What did you think?" In response, Dr. Delbanco suggested patients were afraid of retribution if they challenged what their doctors told them.
Another table suggested rather than talking about the quality of health care, the conversation should be about the quality of health. Participants also considered how doctors and clinicians should respect cultural differences and account for them, with one suggestion being doctors should  “open their minds to the worlds patients bring into their practices.”
In addition to these talking points, participants considered what effect a direct line of contact between a doctor and a patient would have, and whether this would be taken advantage of. One table discussed a patient’s need to be heard, the need to communicate on an ongoing basis, and the concept of giving feedback.
Despite concerns being raised in some areas about this direct line of access, some participants did speak for it, suggesting such an act can demonstrate a mutual respect between the two parties. While more of a doctor’s time may be taken in the short-term, less time will be taken by the patient from the system in the future. Participants will continue to discuss these ideas as the session progresses.

The Salzburg Global program Toward a Shared Culture of Health: Enriching and Charting the Patient-Clinician Relationship is part of the multi-year series Health and Health Care Innovation in the 21st Century. The session is being supported by OpenNotes. More information on the session can be found here: www.salzburglobal.org/go/553. You can follow all the discussions on Twitter by following the hashtag #SGShealth
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Health professionals consider new approaches to recording a patient’s journey
Health professionals consider new approaches to recording a patient’s journey
Oscar Tollast 
  In today’s world, people have the ability to measure and track their health using a device on their wrist or a smartphone in their pocket. A smartphone can now store a person’s Medical ID, their medical records, their eating and sleeping habits, and remind someone when to go for a walk or have a drink of water. In a promotional video, one smartphone company claims that by better knowing your health, the better you know yourself. This is based on a patient’s relationship with their smartphone, but what about their relationship with their doctor? How can patient empowerment better enhance the patient-clinician relationship?
In 1998, a Salzburg Global session, Through the Patient's Eyes: Collaboration between Patients and Health Care Professionals, saw teams of health professionals, patient advocates, artists, and more lay the foundations for the country of “PeoplePower,” a nation whose health system was built “through the patients’ eyes.” At the heart of this concept was an Internet-based patient record, which “resides nowhere but is available everywhere.” Patients would have access to their medical record but would also be urged to edit, track and prioritize needs.
As acknowledged, there have been several new approaches to medical records since this meeting took place. In the US, secure electronic patient portals are accessible to millions of individuals. Organizations like OpenNotes, meanwhile, have inspired major health systems to invite patients to read and respond to notes written by their health providers. Similar practices are spreading across the world, and the technology continues to evolve. 
This March, a cross-sectoral mix of health professional, providers, policymakers, patients, commentators, and journalists are expected to convene at Schloss Leopoldskron for the Salzburg Global Seminar session Toward a Shared Culture of Health: Enriching and Charting the Patient-Clinician Relationship. Teams of four or five Fellows from diverse countries have been invited to take part in the five-day meeting.
The session, which is being supported by OpenNotes, and follows on from the ground-breaking 1998 session, will have a strong focus on aggregating experiences to create new approaches to developing and recording a patient’s journey. The session will be co-chaired by Tom Delbanco and Tobias Esch. Dr. Delbanco is Koplow-Tullis Professor of General Medicine and Primary Care at Harvard Medical School and was instrumental in the 1998 session, while Professor Esch is Professor of Integrative Primary Health Care at Witten/Herdecke University. 
During the session, participants from countries including Australia, Brazil, Sweden, Canada, the US, the UK will receive support from a panel of experts from a broad range of domains. They will analyze the challenges presented in PeoplePower. They will work in country teams, but plenaries, knowledge cafes and role playing exercises will enable participants from different countries to mix and learn from one another. Salzburg Global Program Director John Lotherington said: "This session is set to be a milestone in Salzburg Global’s work on person and patient centered care, exploring how the sharing and co-creation of medical records between physician and patient can transform their relationship in further creative ways."
Among other questions, participants will be expected to ask themselves: 
  • If fully transparent communication becomes a foundation for the future patient-clinician relationship, how will medical practice evolve?
  • Can open medical records become central vehicles for engaging individuals actively in maintaining and restoring health, and in managing illness?
  • How might transparency and co-creation of medical records help people become better stewards of their own health outside of the clinical setting?
  • How might greater transparency promote community engagement in designing systems to deliver care both needed and wanted?
The session will aim to provide participants with new insights and tools to inform action plans in their own countries as medical records and self-care continue to evolve. They will be expected to disseminate what they’ve learned using social media and publications which are consumed by a broad range of health professionals, patients, and laypersons.

The Salzburg Global program Toward a Shared Culture of Health: Enriching and Charting the Patient-Clinician Relationship is part of the multi-year series Health and Health Care Innovation in the 21st Century. The session is being supported by OpenNotes. More information on the session can be found here: www.salzburglobal.org/go/553. You can follow all the discussions on Twitter by following the hashtag #SGShealth
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Rethinking care toward the end of life - Outcomes from a Salzburg Global Seminar
Rethinking care toward the end of life - Outcomes from a Salzburg Global Seminar
Julie Ling and Sheila Payne 
This article first appeared on the EAPC blog, which will continue to publish more posts on the Salzburg Question series. Julie Ling, Chief Executive Officer of the European Association for Palliative Care, and Sheila Payne, Emeritus Professor, International Observatory on End of Life Care, Lancaster University, UK, were in Salzburg, Austria, to attend this global gathering. Here, they set the scene for a new series of posts that we shall be publishing throughout 2017 to encourage a global dialogue and shine a spotlight on the key topics affecting palliative care.
Sixty invited international delegates met in December 2016 to consider global opportunities and challenges in palliative care. They gathered at the Schloss Leopoldskron (some scenes from ‘The Sound of Music’ were filmed here) to discuss and debate seven key questions:
  1. How do we engage patients and families to ensure that end of life care honours what matters most to them, with respect for culture and for context at the level of the individual and the population?
  2. What are the relative contributions of health care and community-based social care in different contexts? How can they best be joined up to maintain function, independence, and agency for people for whom death is near?
  3. How can healthcare systems better support families,  caregivers and community members in caring for people of all ages for whom death is near?
  4. How are robust processes established and implemented for arriving at decisions when patients can no longer express their own preferences? What role does public engagement and government have in this?
  5. Which are the most promising evidence-based and cost-effective innovations in care towards the end of life? What yields the greatest value to patients, especially in low- resource settings?
  6. What can we learn from the systems failures in high-income countries with regard to supporting patients, families and caregivers with palliative care?
  7. How can palliative care best be undertaken in the context of societal deprivation or conflict?
Salzburg Global (SG) was founded in 1947 with the aim of encouraging intellectual dialogue in post-war Europe. SG aims to challenge leaders to help solve important global issues and since its establishment, SG has been a catalyst for global engagement on critical issues in education, health, environment, economics, governance, peace-building and more. SG achieves this by designing, facilitating and hosting international strategic programmes (seminars). Uniquely, Salzburg Global builds connections with and between people from a broad range of expertise, cultures and professional backgrounds. Over the duration of the seminars, government officials, institutions and individuals at all stages of their professional development and from all sectors are asked to rethink their relationships and identify shared interests, goals and outcomes.
A key outcome of the session was aimed to be the development of ‘A Salzburg Statement of key principles guiding care towards the end of life’. It was a testament to the freethinking and originality of the participants that for the first time in the history of SG, the outcome was not a statement, but instead, a set of nine questions. The questions are designed to highlight challenges facing the global community and will be linked to international ‘days’. Each of the nine questions will be explained more fully in EAPC blogs over the coming year.
There was snow and plenty of hard work, interspersed with some time to socialise and make the most of the beautiful location and, of course, there was schnitzel, Glühwein and a Christmas market.
Find out more....
Follow the global dialogue on Twitter. Using the hashtag #allmylifeQs the nine Salzburg Questions will be debated throughout 2017.
Follow the EAPC Blog for more posts in the Salzburg series.
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Salzburg Questions Twitter series on health and palliative care begins
Salzburg Questions Twitter series on health and palliative care begins
Oscar Tollast 
People are invited to take part in a global conversation on the crucial issues affecting care towards the end of life.  The #allmylifeQs hashtag will be in place throughout 2017, and people are invited to answer nine Salzburg Questions using this hashtag on Twitter.
Discussions around each question will be led by different individuals and institutions at the heart of the debate and who were involved in a Salzburg Global session in December: Rethinking Care: Toward the End of Life.
The launch date for this initiative is Monday (February 20), which coincides with the World Day of Social Justice.
Former Minister of Health in Rwanda, Agnes Binagwaho, will lead the first discussion on Twitter, asking: Why aren’t countries accountable to commitment on end of life (#EOL) care for vulnerable people? Following this discussion, there will be eight more Salzburg Questions, which will be spread out throughout the year.  Other Fellows due to lead discussions include Lynna Chandra, Suresh Kumar, Sheila Payne, Emmanuel Luyirika, Richard Harding, Bruce Chernof, Stephen Connor, and Irene Higginson.
Salzburg Global is encouraging its Fellows to take part by sharing blog posts around each question, and interacting on Twitter on the day and beforehand. 
Potential blog platforms include ehospice, EAPC blog, Palliverse, and IAHPC Newsletter. 
People who take part in the conversation are being encouraged to link relevant research to their tweets and blog posts. This research could include papers, studies, seminars or events. 
If you’d like to hold a debate, workshop or Q&A event about a question, we recommend filming it so that it can be viewed on a dedicated YouTube channel. The video should be sent to katie.witcombe@kcl.ac.uk
A Twitter list of Salzburg Global Health Fellows has been created. If you would like to be added to this list, please let us know by subscribing or contacting us on Twitter at @SalzburgGlobal. List of dates, questions, and people leading discussions 20 February 2017 - World Day of Social Justice - Why aren't countries accountable to commitment on #EOL care for vulnerable people? - Agnes Binagwaho 20 March 2017 - World Happiness Day - Is dying well as important as living well? - Lynna Chandra 07 April 2017 - World Health Day - How have you prepared for your death? - Suresh Kumar 15 May 2017 - World Family Day - Will caring for your dying loved one bankrupt you emotionally and financially? - Sheila Payne 20 June 2017 - World Refugee Day - 145 countries signed http://bit.ly/2ah31bH why do refugees have limited access to quality health care and #EOL care? - Emmanuel Luyirika 17 July 2017 - World Population Day - How and what do you measure to ensure palliative & EOL care? - Richard Harding 28 September 2017 - International Right to Know Day - Doctors, Nurses, do you want to die the way your patients die? - Bruce Chernof 14 October 2017 - World Hospice and Palliative Care Day - Do you know how to access #palliative care when you need it? - Stephen Connor 10 November 2017 - World Science Day for Peace and Development - What future research is needed to improve care for people w advanced illness & towards the end of life? - Irene Higginson
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“What is the biggest mistake people should avoid making when building a palliative care system?”
“What is the biggest mistake people should avoid making when building a palliative care system?”
Yeji Park 

“When you decide who needs palliative care, it shouldn’t be based on prognosis. In the United States, it is required that two physicians certify that you are likely to die within six months if you want to receive palliative care. This is not a good policy, as we do not have an accurate way to measure when people will end their life. Patients have to give up all curative treatments in order to obtain palliative care as well, but this also is not a good policy. They should be able to make decisions about treatment independently of whether they receive palliative care.”
Stephen Connor
Executive Director, Worldwide Hospice Palliative Care Alliance, USA
“The mistake we will be committing unless we are aware of it, is to create walls, not bridges. In the Philippines, there is a trend where the specialists want palliative care to be recognized as a separate specialty and do not want to share skills or tasks with others. We need to be willing to share the knowledge and technology with more people, especially from the grassroots. Because, in the end, it’s not about competing against colleagues from other specialties or among ourselves, but all about making sure that everyone has access to good end of life care.”
Liza Manalo
Head, Section of Hospice and Palliative Care at the Medical City Hospital, Philippines

“In Germany, we have a slightly unusual structure where hospice care and palliative care unit are two different structures with different organizations. The palliative care unit is a part of a hospital where they provide more acute care, whereas hospice is a special care home where people can stay longer. These two work and function alongside each other, but they do not always cooperate closely, and sometimes they even work against each other. This is not helpful when you want to move a topic forward politically in the society. There has to be a joint force.”
Claudia Bausewein
Director, Department for Palliative Medicine at Munich University Hospital, Germany
“The biggest mistake that has been made, especially within Africa, is the inadequate funding of the entire health care system. Currently in Africa, 15% of the national budget goes to the health sector. In Uganda, it’s only 7%. This is not enough to cover every aspect of health care, especially the palliative care side. In addition, palliative specialists should be recognized and remunerated by the health service commission as such, so that they can fully concentrate on palliative care.”
Emmanuel Luyirika
Executive Director, African Palliative Care Association, Uganda

Have an opinion on any of our hot topics this week? Email Salzburg Global Seminar Editor Louise Hallman (lhallman@salzburgglobal.org) with either a short 50-100 word response or a 500-750 word article and we will consider it for publication in the report to be published in early 2017! Download the full newsletter from Day 3 & 4
The Salzburg Global Seminar session Rethinking Care Toward the End of Life, part of the long-running series Health and Health Care Innovation, is being held in partnership with the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice and the Mayo Clinic. Follow online on Twitter with the hashtag #SGShealth.
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End of Life Care – Days 3 & 4 – Learning from our past mistakes
Gayatri Palat and Julie Leng share their countries' experiences and lessons from failures
End of Life Care – Days 3 & 4 – Learning from our past mistakes
Louise Hallman 
“If we want to learn from failure, we have to share our failures,” urged a participant on the third day of the Salzburg Global Seminar session Rethinking Care Toward the End of Life.

Recognizing that we learn more from our failures than we do our successes, panelists from four continents shared their countries’ experiences.

One failure that needs to be overcome  is the belief that death is always a failure – this is not the case in palliative care, especially when that death is in comfort rather than living in prolonged pain. As one panelist remarked, many life-prolonging treatments are “futile.”

Although the UK is often lauded as one of the best countries in the world for palliative care, as one British participant remarked, if she were to rebuild a system from scratch, she would have one piece of advice: be more strategic. Many of the UK’s hospices, especially for children’s palliative care, have been established in an ad hoc fashion over several decades, leading to questions of whether these are being used most efficiently in the places where they are most needed.

Fragmentation of services and health insurance is a problem, even in long-established palliative care systems, with patients falling between the cracks of hospital, hospice and home care.

However, one should not assume “strategic” means that the palliative care system should only be built once all other care systems have been fully established; palliative care systems should be built alongside and integrated into the rest of the health care system, not simply “added on” later. If palliative care can be integrated, this can strengthen the system at large, remarked on participant, with doctors and nurses carrying over their learning in pain management, communication, etc., into other areas of medicine.

Another example of what not to do came from the US: In order to receive hospice care under Medicare, patients must have been given a prognosis of less than six months to live and agree to stop pursuing all other curative treatments. As few doctors are willing to give such a prognosis, many people are ineligible for hospice care. “We should not have put a prognosis requirement on palliative care,” lamented an American participant. “Palliative care access should be based on symptom severity,” he added. Many palliative care systems have been put in place assuming that palliative care is only for the end of life, when indeed palliative care models can also be applied at other stages of illness, perhaps even aiding a recovery.

Transplanting a palliative care model from one country to another without appreciating the local cultural sensitivities surrounding death and end of life care, is rarely successful. In India, once palliative care is offered, patients prefer to leave the hospital and die at home rather than transfer to a hospice. However, national health insurance does not cover this, forcing institutionalization. Whereas, in Nepal, many choose to die in temples to have a holier experience, leading to the question of how can these informal hospices be brought into the wider palliative care system?


ECHOing innovations

To drive improvement in health care we need evidence. “In resource poor settings, it is even more important to generate evidence of effectiveness,” said one panelist in a discussion of “which are the most promising evidence-based and cost-effective innovations in end of life care?”

Health care outcomes should be measured from the point of view of those using it, another participant remarked, and in the case of palliative care, that means not only the patient but also their families and caregivers.

One such measure that has been developed is the African Palliative Care Association (APCA)’s African Palliative care Outcome Scale (POS). The POS addresses “the physical and psychological symptoms, spiritual, practical and emotional concerns, and psychosocial needs of the patient and family.” Using the POS, medical staff are able to help reduce the patient’s pain and anxiety and increase family confidence in the patient’s care over a series of hospice visits.

Pain relief can be the most effective measure of palliative care success, but in many countries, staff are not sufficiently trained or the number of doctors who are trained is few. One solution is to train and empower nurses to prescribe and administer pain relief. 

Once evidence has been gathered, sharing this knowledge is important, not only through training and journals, but also by using innovative tools such as “Extension of Community Health Outcomes” – ECHO – which is a “telementoring” (“not telemedicine”) platform, enabling doctors and patients across diverse and remote geographies to connect virtually in large video tele-conferences, sharing their experiences across a wide community of practice.

Care at the margins

If palliative care is about making sure that all people have the chance of a “good death,” then how do we ensure this is all people – including society’s most marginalized?

Marginalized people struggle to access health care services in general, and palliative care is unfortunately no exception. These patients can be hindered by cost barriers, social stigma, or a lack of health literacy.
In many cases, despite knowing these barriers exist, health care systems are failing to serve such patients. Providing care for free (or included in insurance) rather than means-testing can reduce the cost barrier to at-home palliative care, especially for those without family support. Active outreach to the homeless is also vital. In countries where homosexuality is still illegal, access to palliative care can be especially difficult for the LGBT community; social stigma needs to be tackled. Prison populations are aging rapidly; continued incarceration of the elderly will necessitate significant changes in prison conditions.

For those in conflict zones, palliative care is often not considered a priority. For those fleeing conflict, they may find themselves in a country with profoundly different approaches to end of life care and death. Issues can arise when considering how to be culturally sensitive while still avoiding more harmful traditional practices, such as witchcraft and superstitions, but when and where appropriate and possible, host countries should be cognizant and respectful of the cultural differences of their refugee and migrant populations.

Download the full newsletter from Days 3 & 4

The Salzburg Global Seminar session Rethinking Care Toward the End of Life, part of the long-running series Health and Health Care Innovation, is being held in partnership with the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice and the Mayo Clinic. Follow online on Twitter with the hashtag #SGShealth.
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Cultural Nuances in Palliative Care
Cultural nuances in palliative care
Cultural Nuances in Palliative Care
Chris Hamill-Stewart 

Participants of Rethinking Care Toward the End of Life agree on several important principles of palliative care. They all want to ease pain and suffering, ensure that care is focused on the needs of the patient, and they all aim to provide a “good death” – whatever that may look like. However, across cultural boundaries, the pursuit of these ideals may look vastly different, or face different challenges.

Over the past four days, participants have emphasized how the needs and desires of the patients, the challenges for doctors and nurses, and the attitudes and approaches of all those involved vary drastically across geographic and cultural boundaries.

As one of the major themes of discussion from the session, Salzburg Global explored this further. We spoke with the facilitators of the Culture Café event, examining the cultural nuances, different methods and approaches to palliative care, and the different attitudes from the citizens themselves towards death.

Nandini Vallath, from India, emphasized how the culture in India has affected peoples’ attitude towards death: “There’s a lot of death and dying acceptance in India – religion, history and culture contribute to this. The rituals of life talk about life and death as a cycle. There’s no fear of the finality of death – the belief is that death is a transition into another life,” she explains. In the case of India, a big issue is the dissonance between doctor and patient. “What is making palliative care more difficult is the doctor community. They talk the language of the modern science – there is a death-denying culture. Society is very accepting, but the professional community is not.”

Speaking about the Philippines, Liza Manalo explained how religion is an important factor in peoples’ attitude towards death and a “good death,” saying, “If you ask the average Filipino what makes for a good death, they’ll say faith and family make for a good death.” She continues, “We’re conscious that part of good palliative care and a good death is psychosocial support and spiritual care. By doing this, we take a holistic and spiritual approach to palliative care, and in this sense, we are very good at it.”

Religion as an important factor was a sentiment shared by Ivan Odiit Onapito from Uganda. However, he also emphasized the shared cultural history of the people. He told us: “Africa is an oral culture – we use stories to share experiences and to find meaning in things. We use this culture of storytelling, which has been with us for many centuries, as a tool to provide spiritual care.” He emphasizes how useful these stories can be in communicating with patients: “We learn about patients through the medium of stories, and, from this, we look at strengthening their support structures – usually their communities and their families.”

Kathy Kirkland, from the US, and Franziska Kopitzsch, of Germany, both implied that their respective cultures have difficulty outright confronting death. Kirkland explained how the US approach is much less community-based, and also told us: “The conversations that occur around dying are often separate, with health care providers having one conversation with each other, and families and patients having a separate conversation.” American doctors take an impersonal approach towards their patients, which may not always be in their best interests. Kopitzsch spoke about palliative care for those around the patient. She believes “[Germans] don’t know how to grieve.” She explained that there is “no tradition, ritual or celebration when people die.” Here, she touched on the wider issue of palliative care not just for the patient, but their family and loved ones. With less sense of a shared culture or religion, it seems that people find it more difficult to approach the topic of death, and to deal with the death of a loved one.

Yi-Jong Suh explains that in South Korea they are experiencing changes in attitudes towards death and palliative care. “Perhaps as a result of the traditional culture of Confucianism, we never used to talk about parents’ deaths and dying... We were always silent on these matters.” He also tells us how when people discuss their plans for end of life care for a family member, they often don’t include them in the conversation. However “Korean culture is changing, and we’re more willing to confront these issues.” Koreans are opening up to providing palliative care across the board, and people are becoming more “individualized” and willing to openly discuss these issues.

Ultimately, the facilitators of Culture Café have made it clear that history, religion, and culture all have a profound impact on the application of palliative care. Whether it is incorporating cultural aspects of communication into interactions with patients, avoiding the topic of death entirely, or in its effects on the people surrounding a palliative patient, the cultural differences that practitioners and social workers need to take into account when administering palliative care are an inescapable pool of opportunities and challenges. Download the full newsletter from Day 3 & 4
The Salzburg Global Seminar session Rethinking Care Toward the End of Life, part of the long-running series Health and Health Care Innovation, is being held in partnership with the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy & Clinical Practice and the Mayo Clinic. Follow online on Twitter with the hashtag #SGShealth.
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